3. Results

3.      Results
3.1   Test 1 results

Our first test was done using the LEDs on the relay board only instead of the actual water simulation. The graph below shows how the Arduino codes control our relay and as the pump will be connected to the relay, how it controls the pumps as well. So, pump 1 will be connected to Relay 1, which is linked to LED 1 thus, when LED 1 lights up, Pump 1 should work. Pump 2 is linked to LED 2 and should work the same way.
  
The total amount of water to be transferred is 10.44 litres and we need to transfer that in 3.75 minutes. Thus, according to the pumps’ flow rate of 55.556ml/s and the fact that we need to get a close sine curve, we calculated the Relay timings. The LED stops for 4.625 secs at every interval so we are able to get a sine curve. When the LEDs pause, the pumps do not work. This test was done to check if the relay works properly.

Calculation

2 complete tide cycles or 2 sine curves (one day)
= 25 hours
= 1,500 mins
= 90,000 secs

Pump Rate
= 200 liters/hour
= 0.05556 liters/sec (4.s.f)
= 55.556 ml/sec
= 1/18 liters/sec

Volume of water to be transferred
>(water height)*(length of tank)*(breadth of tank)
>20cm*29*18
>20cm x 29cm x 18cm
= 0.2m x 0.29m x 0.18m  
= 0.01044 m^3
= 10.44 litres

Time taken for 10.44 litres
= 10.44 ÷ 1/18 = 187.92 sec


Time Taken for the highest amplitude to the lowest amplitude
= 90,000 secs/4 = 900 secs/4 (scaled down)
= 22,500 secs = 225 secs (scaled down)
Fig 3.1.1
To achieve a high tide (crest) from low tide (trough), we will pump a total of 187.92 secs, excluding the pause time and since, the achieved time must be 225 secs, the pause time
= 225 - 187.92
= 37.08 secs
We will pause the pump 12 times; each time 3.09 secs
Pump flow rate: 55.556ml/s
Time taken from high tide to low tide: 225s
Total time: 450s

√ : Relay lit up
Time (s)
10
13.09
25.59
28.68
43.68
46.77
64.27
67.36
87.36
90.45
109.41
112.5
131.46
LED 1







TIme (s)
134.55
154.55
157.64
175.14
178.23
193.23
196.32
208.82
211.91
221.91
225
LED 1







Time (s)
235
238.09
250.59
253.68
268.68
271.77
286.18
289.27
309.27
312.36
331.32
334.41
LED 2







Time (s)
353.37
356.46
376.46
379.55
397.05
400.14
415.14
418.23
430.72
433.81
443.82
446.91
LED 2






Fig 3.1.2 - Table displaying timings when LEDs lights up

These tables show how the LEDs lit up in a time frame. In each cycle, the LEDs lights up for 10s, 12.5s, 15s, 17.5s, 20s, 18.96s, 18.96s, 20s, 17.5s, 15s, 12.5s and finally 10s. There is a span of 3.09s between each operation when the LEDs do not light up.

Improvement needed:
The relay was not connected to the pumps yet, rather the LEDs only. This needed to be done too as problems might be faced while making the connection, perhaps in the wiring or the codes.

3.2    Test 2 results
Test 2 was conducted in the tank this time. Using the pump flow rate of 55.556ml/s, we edited the codes so the water level in the tank would rise and fall in accordance to the tides desired. Upon marking the water level in the tanks at intervals, we can construct a table which would then be used to generate a graph to show how the water level increases and decreases.

When pump 1 is working, water is transferred into Tank A, thus the water level increases and when Pump 2 is working, water is transferred out of Tank A, thus the water level decreases.
The pause time was increased as a shorter span might have caused the pump to spoil.

The headers for the table are :
1. Water level in Tank A when pump 1 is working (ml)
2. Water level in Tank A when pump 2 is working (ml)
1.png
2.png
3.png
Fig 3.2.1 - Table with water level data Screen Shot 2014-09-03 at 11.30.41 am.png
Fig 3.2.2 - Graph plotted with table data
The graph generated only has a close resemblance to a sine curve as the pump only flows with a linear rate and a perfect sine curve cannot be generated, thus the codes are needed to control the pump to simulate a sine curve.

Improvement needed:
The cycle of each pump begins with a low (pump is off) and ends with a low too. This has to be changed to the starting with a low and ending with a high. The linear part of the curve is constructed at too far apart intervals. Thus, when the graph is continued beyond one sine curve, it no longer resembles a sine curve as it is not symmetrical. So, we would need to increase the number of pauses to allow shorter intervals in the linear part to allow the graph to further resemble a sine curve.

3.3    Test 3 results
With the codes edited, each pause lasts for merely 3.09s.
Pump flow rate: 55.556ml/s
Time taken from high tide to low tide: 225s
Total time: 450s
1.png2.png3.png
4.png
Fig 3.3.1 - Table with water level data
Screen Shot 2014-09-05 at 2.58.05 PM.png
Fig 3.3.2 - Graph plotted with table data

The graph shows how the codes now generate a curve that better resembles a sine graph.
Improvement needed:
When the test was conducted, the water level did not rise in accordance to the graph. Upon scrutinizing the system, we realized that the pump flow rate is actually lesser than that mentioned on the box. So, we had to first find out the actual pump flow rate, which turned out to be 5.556ml/s. Thus, we had to buy a stronger pump and do the coding again.


3.4 Test 4 results
The new pump’s stated flow rate is 1800l/h. However, after calculating, we found out that the actual pump rate is 24.22ml/s. Thus, we redid the coding in accordance to the new flow rate and increased the amount of time for the simulation.
Calculation
Pump Rate
= 10.9 litres/7.5mins
= 87.2 liters/hour
= 0.02422 liters/sec (4.s.f)
= 24.22 ml/sec

Volume of water to be transferred
= 10.9 litres

Time taken for 10.9 litres
= 10.9 l ÷ 0.02422 l/s = 450sec
     = 7 mins 30 secs

Time Taken from high tide to low tide
= 90,000 secs/4 = 9000 secs/4 (scaled down)
= 22,500 secs = 2250 secs (scaled down)

Therefore the pause time
= 2250 secs - 450 secs
= 1800 secs
Due, to the fact that 1800 is divisible by 18. We will pause the pump 18 times; each time 100 secs

Pump flow rate: 24.22ml/s
Time taken from high tide to low tide: 2250s
Total time: 4500s

Time (s)
0
10
110
124
224
242
342
364
464
Volume of Water in Tank B (ml)
2280
2522.2
2522.2
2861.28
2861.28
3297.24
3297.24
3830.08
3830.08

564
590
690
720
754
854
892
992
1025
1125
4459.8
4459.8
5186.4
5186.4
6009.88
6009.88
6930.24
6930.24
7729.5
7729.5

1158
1258
1296
1396
1430
1530
1560
1660
1686
1786
8528.76
8528.76
9449.12
9449.12
10272.6
10272.6
10999.2
10999.2
11628.92
11628.92

1808
1908
1926
2026
2040
2140
2150
2250
2260
2360
12161.76
12161.76
12597.72
12597.72
12936.8
12936.8
13179
13179
12936.8
12936.8

2374
2392
2492
2592
2614
2714
2740
2840
2870
2970
12597.72
12597.72
12161.76
12161.76
11628.92
11628.92
10999.2
10999.2
10272.6
10272.6

3004
3104
3142
3242
3275
3375
3408
3508
3546
3646
9449.12
9449.12
8528.76
8528.76
7729.5
7729.5
6930.24
6930.24
6009.88
6009.88

3680
3780
3810
3910
3936
4036
4058
4158
4176
4276
5186.4
5186.4
4459.8
4459.8
3830.08
3830.08
3297.24
3297.24
2861.28
2861.28

4290
4390
4400
4500
4510
4610
4624
4724
4742
4842
2522.2
2522.2
2280
2280
2522.2
2522.2
2861.28
2861.28
3297.24
3297.24

4864
4964
5064
5090
5190
5220
5254
5354
5392
5492
3830.08
3830.08
4459.8
4459.8
5186.4
5186.4
6009.88
6009.88
6930.24
6930.24

5525
5625
5658
5758
5796
5896
5930
6030
6060
6160
7729.5
7729.5
8528.76
8528.76
9449.12
9449.12
10272.6
10272.6
10999.2
10999.2

6186
6286
6308
6408
6426
6526
6540
6640
6650
6750
11628.92
11628.92
12161.76
12161.76
12597.72
12597.72
12936.8
12936.8
13179
13179

6760
6860
6874
6892
6992
7092
7114
7214
7240
7340
12936.8
12936.8
12597.72
12597.72
12161.76
12161.76
11628.92
11628.92
10999.2
10999.2

7370
7470
7504
7604
7642
7742
7775
7875
7908
8008
10272.6
10272.6
9449.12
9449.12
8528.76
8528.76
7729.5
7729.5
6930.24
6930.24

8046
8146
8180
8280
8310
8410
8436
8536
8558
8658
6009.88
6009.88
5186.4
5186.4
4459.8
4459.8
3830.08
3830.08
3297.24
3297.24

8676
8776
8790
8890
8900
9000
2861.28
2861.28
2522.2
2522.2
2280
2280

Fig 3.4.1 - Table with water level data
Screen Shot 2014-09-07 at 7.18.53 PM.png
Fig 3.4.2 - Graph plotted with table data

Improvement needed:
After doing this test, while dismantling the pump connections with the pipe, one of the pieces broke, thus, we had to make adjustments which again would lead to a change in the pump flow rate.

3.5 Test 5 results
After making adjustments to the pipe connections, we assessed the pump flow rate again and found it to be 31.14ml/s.
Calculation
Pump Rate
=10.9 litres/5mins 50secs
= 112.11 liters/hour
= 0.03114 liters/sec (4.s.f)
= 31.14 ml/sec

Volume of water to be transferred
=10.9 litres

Time taken for 10.9 litres
=10.9 l ÷ 0.03114 l/s = 350s
= 5 mins 50 secs

Time Taken for the highest amplitude to the lowest amplitude
= 90,000 secs/4 = 9000 secs/4 (scaled down)
= 22,500 secs = 2250 secs (scaled down)
*edit; 225 sec = 2250 secs, 450 sec = 4500 secs, 675 sec = 6750 secs, 900 sec = 9000 secs

Therefore, for the highest amplitude to the lowest amplitude of the sine curve, we will pump a total of 350 secs, excluding the pause time.
And the achieved time must be 2250 secs.

Therefore the pause time
= 2250 secs - 350 secs
= 1900 secs

As the pump pauses 18 times, each time, the pause will be 105.56s.

Pump flow rate: 31.14ml/s
Time taken from high tide to low tide: 2250s
Total time: 90000s

Time (s)
0
10
115.56
128.06
233.62
248.62
354.18
371.68
477.24
Volume of Water in Tank B (ml)
2280
2591.4
2591.4
2980.65
2980.65
3447.75
3447.75
3992.7
3992.7

497.24
602.8
625.3
730.86
755.86
861.42
888.92
994.48
1019.48
1125.04
4615.5
4615.5
5316.15
5316.15
6094.65
6094.65
6951
6951
7729.5
7729.5

1150.04
1255.6
1283.1
1388.66
1413.66
1519.22
1541.72
1647.28
1667.28
1772.84
8508
8508
9364.35
9364.35
10142.85
10142.85
10843.5
10843.5
11466.3
11466.3

1790.34
1895.9
1910.9
2016.46
2028.96
2134.52
2144.52
2250.08
2260.08
2365.64
12011.25
12011.25
12478.35
12478.35
12867.6
12867.6
13179
13179
12867.6
12867.6

2378.14
2483.7
2498.7
2604.26
2621.76
2727.32
2747.32
2852.88
2875.38
2980.94
12478.35
12478.35
12011.25
12011.25
11466.3
11466.3
10843.5
10843.5
10142.85
10142.85

3005.94
3111.5
3139
3244.56
3269.56
3375.12
3400.12
3505.68
3533.18
3638.74
9364.35
9364.35
8508
8508
7729.5
7729.5
6951
6951
6094.65
6094.65

3663.74
3769.3
3791.8
3897.36
3917.36
4022.92
4040.42
4145.98
4160.98
4266.54
5316.15
5316.15
4615.5
4615.5
3992.7
3992.7
3447.75
3447.75
2980.65
2980.65

4279.04
4384.6
4394.6
4500.16
4510.16
4615.72
4628.22
4733.78
4748.78
4854.34
2591.4
2591.4
2280
2280
2591.4
2591.4
2980.65
2980.65
3447.75
3447.75

4871.84
4977.4
4997.4
5102.96
5125.46
5231.02
5256.02
5361.58
5389.08
5494.64
3992.7
3992.7
4615.5
4615.5
5316.15
5316.15
6094.65
6094.65
6951
6951

5519.64
5625.2
5650.2
5755.76
5783.26
5888.82
5913.82
6019.38
6041.88
6147.44
7729.5
7729.5
8508
8508
9364.35
9364.35
10142.85
10142.85
10843.5
10843.5

6167.44
6273.0
6290.5
6396.06
6411.06
6516.62
6529.12
6634.68
6644.68
6750.24
11466.3
11466.3
12011.25
12011.25
12478.35
12478.35
12867.6
12867.6
13179
13179

6760.24
6865.8
6878.3
6983.86
6998.86
7104.42
7121.92
7227.48
7247.48
7353.04
12867.6
12867.6
12478.35
12478.35
12011.25
12011.25
11466.3
11466.3
10843.5
10843.5

7375.54
7481.1
7506.1
7611.66
7639.16
7744.72
7769.72
7875.28
7900.28
8005.84
10142.85
10142.85
9364.35
9364.35
8508
8508
7729.5
7729.5
6951
6951

8033.34
8138.9
8163.9
8269.46
8291.96
8397.52
8417.52
8523.08
8540.58
8646.14
6094.65
6094.65
5316.15
5316.15
4615.5
4615.5
3992.7
3992.7
3447.75
3447.75


8661.14
8766.7
8779.2
8884.76
8894.76
9000.32
2980.65
2980.65
2591.4
2591.4
2280
2280

Fig 3.5.1 - Table with water level data  
Fig 3.5.2 - Graph plotted with table data
The grey curve, which has a very low visibility proves that the curve of water level change  very closely resembles a sine curve.

3.6    Special observations
As mentioned in 2.5 Data analysis, the graph would be a sine graph. However, with the usage of a pump alone, the graph would be linear. Thus, to make it a sine curve, the codes would have to be edited to simulate the graph. While doing the tests, we realised that evaporation was occurring so, after a prolonged period of time, the water level was below the desired one. Thus, we would have to keep refilling some water. We also noticed that when the tests were not being conducted but the pipes were still bridging the two tanks together,  it creates a kind of ‘siphon effect’. This is when water in both tanks rest at equilibrium as the water at the higher level would flow into the other tank through the pipe. ("Siphon", 2013)

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